The History Portal
History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of knowledge which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than as the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.
Amongst scholars, fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history"; the methods of Herodotus along with his contemporary Thucydides form the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence (along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world) has spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has developed over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often, history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
The Mormon handcart pioneers
were participants in the westward migration of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
who used handcarts
to transport their supplies and belongings while walking from Iowa
. The Mormon handcart movement began in 1856 and lasted until 1860.
Motivated to join their fellow Church members in avoiding persecution but lacking funds for full ox or horse teams, nearly 3,000 Mormon pioneers from England, Wales, and Scandinavia made the journey to Utah in 10 handcart companies. For two of them, the Willie and Martin handcart companies, the trek led to disaster after they started their journey dangerously late and were caught by heavy snow and bitterly cold temperatures in the Rocky Mountains of central Wyoming. Despite a dramatic rescue effort, more than 210 of the 980 pioneers in the two companies died along the way.
Although fewer than ten percent of the 1847–68 Latter-day Saint emigrants made the journey west using handcarts, the handcart pioneers have become an important symbol in LDS culture, representing the faithfulness, courage, determination, and sacrifice of the pioneer generation. The handcart treks were a familiar theme in 19th century Mormon folk music and handcart pioneers continue to be recognized and honored in events such as Pioneer Day, Church pageants, and similar commemorations.
Saint Joan of Arc
, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans
: Jeanne d'Arc
, IPA: [ʒan daʁk]
; ca. 1412
– 30 May 1431), is a national heroine
of France and a Roman Catholic saint
. A peasant
girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War
, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII
. She was captured by the Burgundians
, sold to the English, tried by an ecclesiastical court
, and burned at the stake when she was 19 years old.
Twenty-five years after the execution, Pope Callixtus III
examined the trial, pronounced her innocent and declared her a martyr
Joan of Arc was beatified
in 1909 and canonized
She is – along with St. Denis
, St. Martin of Tours
, St. Louis IX
, and St. Theresa of Lisieux
– one of the patron saints
Joan asserted that she had visions from God that instructed her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and lifted the siege in only nine days. Several more swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims and settled the disputed succession to the throne.
Did you know...
On this day
Time's glory is to command contending kings,
To unmask falsehood, and bring truth to light.
"High ideas were besmirched by cruelty and greed, enterprise and endurance by a blind and narrow self righteousness, and the Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God, which is a sin against the Holy Ghost."
— Steven Runciman
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