1990 United States Census

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Twenty-first Census
of the United States
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
1990USCensusLogo.svg
Census Logo
General information
Country United States
Date taken April 1, 1990
Total population 248,709,873
Percent change Increase 9.8%
Most populous state California
29,760,021
Least populous state Wyoming
453,588

The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 Census.[1]

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

It was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians.

To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople.[2] The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062.[3]

State rankings[edit]

Rank
State
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1  California 23,669,000 29,760,021 Increase 6,092,257 Increase 25.7%
2  New York 17,557,000 17,990,455 Increase 433,000 Increase 2.5%
3  Texas 14,228,000 16,986,510 Increase 2,758,510 Increase 19.4%
4  Florida 9,739,000 12,937,926 Increase 3,198,926 Increase 32.8%
5  Pennsylvania 11,867,000 11,881,643 Increase 14,643 Increase 0.12%
6  Illinois 11,419,000 11,430,602 Increase 11,602 Increase 0.1%
7  Ohio 10,797,000 10,847,115 Increase 50,115 Increase 0.4%
8  Michigan 9,259,000 9,295,297 Increase 36,297 Increase 0.39%
9  New Jersey 7,364,000 7,730,188 Increase 366,188 Increase 4.97%
10  North Carolina 5,874,000 6,628,637 Increase 754,637 Increase 12.8%
11  Georgia 5,464,000 6,478,216 Increase 1,014,216 Increase 18.5%
12  Virginia 5,346,000 6,187,358 Increase 841,358 Increase 15.7%
13  Massachusetts 5,737,000 6,016,425 Increase 279,425 Increase 4.87%
14  Indiana 5,491,000 5,544,159 Increase 53,159 Increase 0.96%
15  Missouri 4,917,000 5,117,073 Increase 200,073 Increase 4.0%
16  Wisconsin 4,706,000 4,891,769 Increase 185,769 Increase 3.9%
17  Tennessee 4,591,000 4,877,185 Increase 286,185 Increase 6.2%
18  Washington 4,130,000 4,866,692 Increase 736,692 Increase 17.8%
19  Maryland 4,216,000 4,781,468 Increase 565,468 Increase 13.4%
20  Minnesota 4,077,000 4,375,099 Increase 298,099 Increase 7.3%
21  Louisiana 4,203,000 4,219,973 Increase 16,973 Increase 0.4%
22  Alabama 3,891,000 4,040,587 Increase 149,587 Increase 3.8%
23  Kentucky 3,661,000 3,685,296 Increase 24,296 Increase 0.66%
24  Arizona 2,718,000 3,665,228 Increase 947,228 Increase 34.8%
25  South Carolina 3,119,000 3,486,703 Increase 367,703 Increase 11.7%
26  Colorado 2,890,000 3,294,394 Increase 404,394 Increase 14.0%
27  Connecticut 3,107,000 3,287,116 Increase 180,116 Increase 5.8%
28  Oklahoma 3,026,000 3,145,585 Increase 119,585 Increase 3.9%
29  Oregon 2,632,000 2,842,321 Increase 210,321 Increase 8.0%
30  Iowa 2,914,000 2,776,755 Decrease -137,245 Decrease -4.7%
31  Mississippi 2,520,000 2,573,216 Increase 53,216 Increase 2.1%
32  Kansas 2,363,000 2,477,574 Increase 114,574 Increase 4.8%
33  Arkansas 2,285,000 2,350,725 Increase 65,725 Increase 2.9%
34  West Virginia 1,950,000 1,793,477 Decrease -156,523 Decrease -8.0%
35  Utah 1,461,000 1,722,850 Increase 261,850 Increase 17.9%
36  Nebraska 1,570,000 1,578,385 Increase 8,385 Increase 0.53%
37  New Mexico 1,299,000 1,515,069 Increase 216,069 Increase 16.6%
38  Maine 1,125,000 1,227,928 Increase 102,928 Increase 9.1%
39  Nevada 799,000 1,201,833 Increase 402,833 Increase 50.4%
40  New Hampshire 921,000 1,109,252 Increase 88,252 Increase 20.4%
41  Hawaii 985,000 1,108,229 Increase 123,229 Increase 12.5%
42  Idaho 945,000 1,006,749 Increase 61,749 Increase 6.5%
43  Rhode Island 948,000 1,003,464 Increase 55,464 Increase 5.85%
44  Montana 787,000 799,065 Increase 12,065 Increase 1.5%
45  South Dakota 690,000 696,004 Increase 6,004 Increase 0.87%
46  Delaware 596,000 666,168 Increase 70,168 Increase 11.7%
47   North Dakota 654,000 638,800 Decrease -15,200 Decrease -2.3%
 District of Columbia 638,000 606,900 Decrease -31,100 Decrease -4.9%
48  Vermont 512,000 562,758 Increase 50,758 Increase 9.9%
49  Alaska 400,000 550,043 Increase 150,043 Increase 37.5%
50  Wyoming 471,000 453,588 Decrease -17,412 Decrease -3.7%
   United States 226,545,805 248,709,873 22,164,068 9.8%

Reapportionment[edit]

The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election.

Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 19 seats being switched.[4]

Gained seven seats Gained four seats Gained three seats Gained one seat Lost one seat Lost two seats Lost three seats
California Florida Texas Arizona
Georgia
North Carolina
Virginia
Washington
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Montana
New Jersey
West Virginia
Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York

City rankings[edit]

Top five[edit]

Rank
City
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1