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1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1975th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 975th year of the 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1970s decade. It was also declared the International Women's Year by the United Nations and the European Architectural Heritage Year by the Council of Europe.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- January 1
- January 2
- January 5 – Tasman Bridge disaster: The Tasman Bridge in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, is struck by the bulk ore carrier MV Lake Illawarra, killing 12 people.
- January 6 – United States television debuts:
- January 7 – OPEC agrees to raise crude oil prices by 10%.
- January 8
- January 14 – Heiress Lesley Whittle, 17, is kidnapped from her home in Shropshire, England by Donald Neilson.
- January 15
- Alvor Agreement: Portugal announces that it will grant independence to Angola on November 11.
- International Women's Year is launched in Britain by Princess Alexandra and Barbara Castle.
- Steel roller coaster Space Mountain (Magic Kingdom) opens at Walt Disney World in Florida, becoming one of the park's most popular attractions into the 21st century.
- January 18 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission is divided between the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, partly in response to the 1973 oil crisis.
- January 19 – The 6.8 Ms Kinnaur earthquake affected Himachal Pradesh in India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing 47.
- January 20
- January 24 – Jazz pianist Keith Jarrett plays the solo improvisation 'The Köln Concert' at the Cologne Opera, which, recorded live, becomes the best-selling piano recording in history.
- January 26 – Immaculata University defeats the University of Maryland 80-48 in the first nationally televised women's basketball game in the United States.
- January 29 – The Weather Underground radical student group bombs the United States Department of State main office in Washington, D.C.
- February 1 – The Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation is launched in the Philippines.
- February 4 – The Haicheng earthquake, the first successfully predicted earthquake, kills 2,041 and injures 27,538 in Haicheng, Liaoning, China.
- February 5 – The Argentine president Isabelita Perón decrees Operativo Independencia, aiming to neutralize or annihilate the "subversive elements" in the province of Tucuman. Isabelita takes advantage to take a self-coup and assume extraordinary powers.
- February 6 – A crucial by-election is held in Kankesanthurai, Sri Lanka.
- February 9 – The Soyuz 17 crew (Georgy Grechko, Aleksei Gubarev) returns to Earth after 1 month aboard the Salyut 4 space station.
- February 11
- February 13
- February 21 – Watergate scandal: Former United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell, and former White House aides H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, are sentenced to between 30 months and 8 years in prison.
- February 23 – In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly 2 months early in the United States.
- February 26 – A fleeing Provisional Irish Republican Army member shoots and kills off-duty London police officer Stephen Tibble, 22, as he gives chase.
- February 27 – The 2 June Movement kidnaps West German politician Peter Lorenz. He is released on March 4 after most of the kidnappers' demands are met.
- February 28
- A major tube train crash at Moorgate station, London kills 43 people.
- In Lomé, Togo, the European Economic Community and 46 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries sign a financial and economic treaty, known as the first Lomé Convention.
- The National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) approaches the South African Embassy in London and requests 40 to 50 artillery pieces to assist their cause in the Angolan Civil War.
- March 1
- March 4
- March 6
- March 7 – The body of teenage heiress Lesley Whittle, kidnapped 7 weeks earlier by the "Black Panther", is discovered in Staffordshire, England.
- March 8
- March 9 – Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System begins.
- March 10
- Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops attack Ban Mê Thuột, South Vietnam, on their way to capturing Saigon.
- The Rocky Horror Show opens on Broadway in New York City; closed after 3 previews and 45 performances.
- An extended portion of Sanyō Shinkansen between Okayama Station and Hakata Station opens, thus making Shinkansen reach the second island, Kyushu, Japan.
- March 11 – The leftist military government in Portugal defeats a rightist coup attempt.
- March 13 – Vietnam War: South Vietnam President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu orders the Central Highlands evacuated. This turns into a mass exodus involving troops and civilians (the Convoy of Tears).
- March 15 – In Brazil, Guanabara State merges into the state of Rio de Janeiro. The state's capital moves from the city of Niterói to the city of Rio de Janeiro.
- March 22 – Ding-a-dong by Teach-In (music by Dick Bakker, text by Will Luikinga and Eddy Ouwens) wins the 20th Eurovision Song Contest 1975 for the Netherlands.
- March 25 – King Faisal of Saudi Arabia is shot and killed by his nephew.
- March 27 – The South African government announces that it will consolidate the 113 separate homeland areas into 36.
- March 28 – A fire in the maternity wing at Kucic Hospital in Rijeka, former Yugoslavia, kills 25 people.
- March 29 – Blow by Blow by Jeff Beck is released. It would become his most successful album in the United States, reaching the top five and selling over one million copies.
- March 31
- Süleyman Demirel of AP forms the new government of Turkey (39th government, a four-party coalition, so-called First National Front (Turkish: Milliyetçi cephe)).
- In his final game on the sideline, John Wooden coaches UCLA to its 10th national championship in 12 seasons when the Bruins defeat Kentucky 92-85 in the title game at San Diego.
- April 3 – Bobby Fischer refuses to play in a chess match against Anatoly Karpov, giving Karpov the title.
- April 4
- April 5 – The Soviet manned space mission Soyuz 18a ends in failure during its ascent into orbit when a critical malfunction occurs in the second and third stages of the booster rocket during staging, resulting in the cosmonauts and their Soyuz spacecraft having to be ripped free from the vehicle. Both cosmonauts survive.
- April 9
- April 13
- April 17 – The Khmer Republic surrenders, when the Communist Khmer Rouge guerilla forces capture Phnom Penh ending the Cambodian Civil War, with mass evacuation of American troops and Cambodian civilians.
- April 18 – The Khmer Rouge beings prompting a forcible mass evacuation of the city and starting the genocide.
- April 19 – Nico Diederichs becomes the 4th State President of South Africa.
- April 24 – Six Red Army Faction terrorists take over the West German embassy in Stockholm, take 11 hostages and demand the release of the group's jailed members; shortly after, they are captured by Swedish police (See West German Embassy siege).
- April 25 – Vietnam War: As North Vietnamese Army forces close in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian Embassy is closed and evacuated, almost 10 years to the day since the first Australian troop commitment to South Vietnam.
- April 29 – Vietnam War:
- April 30 – The Vietnam War ends with the Fall of Saigon: The Vietnam War concludes as Communist forces from North Vietnam take Saigon, resulting in mass evacuation of the remaining American troops and South Vietnam civilians. As the capital is taken, South Vietnam surrenders unconditionally and is replaced with the temporary Provisional Government.
- May 1 – The Cold War between Cambodia and Vietnam begins, which eventually leads to the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
- May 3 – West Ham United wins the FA Cup at Wembley, beating Fulham 2–0 in the final. Both goals are scored by Alan Taylor. West Ham legend Bobby Moore, appears for Fulham.
- May 5 – The Busch Gardens Williamsburg theme park opens in Virginia.
- May 6
- May 12 – Mayaguez incident: Khmer Rouge forces in Cambodia seize the United States merchant ship Mayaguez in international waters.
- May 15 – Mayaguez incident: The American merchant ship Mayaguez, seized by Cambodian forces, is rescued by the U.S. Navy and Marines; 38 Americans are killed.
- May 16
- May 17 – Elton John's Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy becomes the first album to enter the US Billboard 200 album chart at Number One.
- May 25
- May 27
- The Dibbles Bridge coach crash near Grassington, North Yorkshire, England results in 32 deaths (the highest ever toll in a United Kingdom road accident).
- In the National Hockey League, The Philadelphia Flyers defeat the Buffalo Sabres 2-0 in game six of the finals to claim their second straight Stanley Cup.
- May 28 – Fifteen West African countries sign the Treaty of Lagos, creating the Economic Community of West African States.
- June 5
- June 6 – The Georgetown Agreement, formally creating the ACP Group, is signed.
- June 9 – The Order of Australia is awarded for the first time.
- June 10 – In Washington, D.C., the Rockefeller Commission issues its report on CIA abuses, recommending a joint congressional oversight committee on intelligence.
- June 11 – After a referendum and seven years of military rule, modern day Greece is established as the Hellas Republic.
- June 19 – Richard Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan is found guilty in absentia of the murder of nanny Sandra Rivett.
- June 20 – Jaws is released in theaters and becomes a popular summer hit, setting the standard for Hollywood blockbusters for years to come.
- June 25
- June 26 – Two FBI agents and one AIM member die in a shootout, at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.
- July 1 – The Postmaster-General's Department is disaggregated into the Australian Telecommunications Commission (trading as Telecom Australia) and the Australian Postal Commission (trading as Australia Post).
- July 4
- July 5 – Cape Verde gains independence after 500 years of Portuguese rule.
- July 6
- July 9 – The National Assembly of Senegal passes a law that will pave way for a multi-party system (albeit highly restricted).
- July 12 – São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.
- July 17 – Apollo–Soyuz Test Project: A manned American Apollo spacecraft and the manned Soviet Soyuz spacecraft for the Soyuz 19 mission, docks in orbit, marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the 2 nations.
- July 30 – In Detroit, former Teamsters Union president Jimmy Hoffa is reported missing.
- The first Cuban forces arrive in Angola to join Russian personnel who are there to assist the MPLA who controls less than a quarter of Angolan territory.
- The United States, Zaire and Zambia request South Africa to provide training and support for the FNLA and UNITA.
- August 1 – The Helsinki Accords, which officially recognize Europe's national borders and respect for human rights, are signed in Finland.
- August 3 – The Louisiana Superdome opens in New Orleans.
- August 5 – U.S. President Ford posthumously restores the U.S. citizenship of General Robert E. Lee, military leader of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
- August 8
- August 11
- August 15
- The Birmingham Six are wrongfully sentenced to life imprisonment in Great Britain (they are released 1991).
- Founder President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman of Bangladesh is killed during a coup led by Major Syed Faruque Rahman.
- Some members of Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Armageddon will occur this year based on the group's chronology and some sell their houses and businesses to prepare for the new world paradise which they believe will be created when Jesus establishes God's Kingdom on Earth.
- August 20 – Viking program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars.
- August 24 – Officers responsible for the military coup in Greece in 1967 are sentenced to death in Athens. The sentences are later commuted to life imprisonment.
- August 25 – The Victoria Falls Conference between Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith and the United African National Council is held in a South African Railways coach on the Victoria Falls Bridge, officiated by Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda and South African Prime Minister John Vorster.
- September–October – In New Zealand, Māori leader Whina Cooper leads a march of 5,000 people, in support of Maori claims to their land.
- September 5
- In Sacramento, California, Lynette Fromme, a follower of jailed cult leader Charles Manson, attempts to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford, but is thwarted by a Secret Service agent.
- The London Hilton Hotel is bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army; 2 people are killed and 63 injured.
- September 6 – An earthquake with a Richter magnitude of 6.7 kills at least 2,085 in Diyarbakır and Lice, Turkey.
- September 9 – Riverfront Coliseum opens in Cincinnati.
- September 14
- September 15 – The French department of "Corse", comprising the entire island of Corsica, is divided into two departments: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica).
- September 16 – Papua New Guinea gains its independence from Australia.
- September 16 – Cape Verde, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe join the United Nations.
- September 18 – Fugitive Patty Hearst is captured in San Francisco.
- September 19
- September 20 – The term of Tuanku Al-Mutassimu Billahi Muhibbudin Sultan Abdul Halim Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, as the 5th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, ends. Bruce marries Cathie in Parma, Ohio.
- September 21 – Sultan Yahya Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim Petra of Kelantan, becomes the 6th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
- September 22 – U.S. President Gerald Ford survives a second assassination attempt, this time by Sara Jane Moore in San Francisco.
- September 24 – Dougal Haston and Doug Scott on the 1975 British Mount Everest Southwest Face expedition become the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest by any of its faces and the first Britons to reach the summit by any route.
- September 27
- September 28 – The Spaghetti House siege takes place in London.
- September 30 – The Hughes Helicopters (later McDonnell-Douglas, now Boeing IDS) AH-64 Apache makes its first flight.
- October 1 – Thrilla in Manila: Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier in a boxing match in Manila, Philippines.
- October 2 – A blast at an explosives factory kills 6 in Beloeil, Quebec.
- October 9 – A bomb explosion outside the Green Park tube station near Piccadilly in London kills 1 and injures 20.
- October 11 – NBC airs the first episode of Saturday Night Live (George Carlin is the first host; Billy Preston and Janis Ian the first musical guests).
- October 14 – The South African Defence Force invades Angola during Operation Savannah in support of the FNLA and UNITA prior to the Angolan elections scheduled for 11 November.
- October 16
- October 21 – 1975 World Series: The Boston Red Sox defeated the Cincinnati Reds in Game Six off Carlton Fisk's 12th-inning home run to cap off what many consider to be the best World Series game ever played.
- October 22 – The Reds defeat the Red Sox 4 games to 3 in a broadcast that breaks records for a televised sporting event.
- October 27 – Robert Poulin kills 1 and wounds 5 at St. Pius X High School in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada before shooting himself.
- October 30
- October 31
- The Queen single "Bohemian Rhapsody" is released. It later becomes one of their most popular songs.
- The Racial Discrimination Act 1975 took effect in Australia.
- Tun Mustapha resigned as Chief Minister of Sabah, a state in Malaysia, bringing to an end speculation that he would attempt to lead secession for Sabah to become an independent nation.
- November 3
- An independent audit of Mattel, one of the United States' largest toy manufacturers, reveals that company officials fabricated press releases and financial information to "maintain the appearance of continued corporate growth."
- The first petroleum pipeline opens from Cruden Bay to Grangemouth, Scotland.
- The long-running television game show