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1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1970th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 970th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1970s decade.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- January 1
- January 5 – The 7.1 Mw Tonghai earthquake shakes Tonghai County, Yunnan province, China, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). Between 10,000–14,621 were killed and 26,783 were injured.
- January 5 – The first episode of United States soap opera All My Children is broadcast on the ABC television network.
- January 14 – Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War.
- January 14 – Diana Ross and The Supremes perform their farewell live concert together at the Frontier Hotel in Las Vegas. Ross's replacement, Jean Terrell, is introduced onstage at the end of the last show.
- January 15 – After a 32-month fight for independence from Nigeria, Biafran forces under Philip Effiong formally surrender to General Yakubu Gowon.
- January 20 – The Greater London Council announces its plans for the Thames Barrier at Woolwich to prevent flooding (the barrier opens in 1981).
- January 21
- January 23 – Joseph Fielding Smith becomes the 10th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- January 26 – Mick Jagger is fined £200 for possession of cannabis.
- February 1 – The Benavidez rail disaster near Buenos Aires, Argentina kills 236.
- February 10 – An avalanche at Val-d'Isère, France kills 41 tourists.
- February 11 – Ōsumi, Japan's first satellite, is launched on a Lambda-4 rocket.
- February 13 – Black Sabbath's eponymous debut album is released; often regarded as the first true heavy metal album.
- February 14 – The iconic live album The Who: Live at Leeds is recorded.
- February 17
- February 18 – A jury finds the Chicago Seven defendants not guilty of conspiring to incite a riot, in charges stemming from the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Five of the defendants are found guilty on the lesser charge of crossing state lines to incite a riot.
- February 19 – Poseidon bubble: shares in Australian nickel mining company Poseidon NL, which stood at $0.80 in September 1969, peak at around $280 before the speculative bubble bursts.
- February 21 – Construction begins on the Boğaziçi Bridge crossing the Bosphorus in Istanbul.
- February 22 – Guyana becomes a Republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.
- February 26 – Chevrolet releases the second generation Camaro.
- March 1 – Rhodesia severs its last tie with the United Kingdom, declaring itself a republic.
- March 5 – The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect, after ratification by 56 nations.
- March 6
- March 7
- March 12 – Teenagers in the United Kingdom vote for the first time, in a by-election in Bridgwater.
- March 15 – The Expo '70 World's Fair opens in Suita, Osaka, Japan.
- March 16 – The complete New English Bible is published.
- March 17 – The United States Army charges 14 officers with suppressing information related to the My Lai Massacre.
- March 18
- General Lon Nol ousts Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.
- United States Postal Service workers in New York City go on strike; the strike spreads to the state of California and the cities of Akron, Ohio, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, and Denver; 210,000 out of 750,000 U.S. postal employees walk out. President Nixon assigns military units to New York City post offices. The strike lasts two weeks.
- March 20 – The Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation (ACCT) (Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique) is founded.
- March 21
- March 31
- April 1
- American President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette television advertisements in the United States from January 1, 1971.
- American Motors Corporation introduces the Gremlin.
- The 1970 United States Census begins. There are 203,392,031 United States residents on this day.
- April 4 – Fragments of burnt human remains believed to be those of Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun, Joseph Goebbels, Magda Goebbels and the Goebbels children are crushed and scattered in the Biederitz river at a KGB center in Magdeburg, East Germany.
- April 6 – BBC Radio 4 broadcasts the first edition of PM.
- April 8
- A huge gas explosion at a subway construction site in Osaka, Japan kills 79 and injures over 400.
- Israeli Air Force F-4 Phantom II fighter bombers kill 47 Egyptian school children at an elementary school in what is known as Bahr el-Baqar massacre. The single-floor school is hit by five bombs and two air-to-ground missiles.
- April 10
- April 11
- April 13 – An oxygen tank in the Apollo 13 spacecraft explodes, forcing the crew to abort the mission and return in four days.
- April 16
- April 17 – Apollo program: Apollo 13 splashes down safely in the Pacific.
- April 21 – The Principality of Hutt River "secedes" from Australia (it remains unrecognised by Australia and other nations).
- April 22 – The first Earth Day is celebrated in the U.S.
- April 24 – China's first satellite (Dong Fang Hong 1) is launched into orbit using a Long March-1 Rocket (CZ-1).
- April 26 – The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is founded.
- April 29 – The U.S. invades Cambodia to hunt out the Viet Cong; widespread, large antiwar protests occur in the U.S.
- May 1 – Demonstrations against the trial of the New Haven Nine, Bobby Seale, and Ericka Huggins draw 12,000. President Richard Nixon orders U.S. forces to cross into neutral Cambodia, threatening to widen the Vietnam War, sparking nationwide riots and leading to the Kent State shootings.
- May 4 – Kent State shootings: Four students at Kent State University in Ohio, USA are killed and nine wounded by Ohio National Guardsmen, at a protest against the incursion into Cambodia.
- May 6
- May 8
- Hard Hat Riot: Unionized construction workers attack about 1,000 students and others protesting the Kent State shootings near the intersection of Wall Street and Broad Street and at New York City Hall.
- The Beatles release their 12th and final album, Let It Be.
- The New York Knicks win their first NBA championship, defeating the Los Angeles Lakers 113-99 in Game 7 of the world championship series at Madison Square Garden.
- May 9 – In Washington, D.C., 100,000 people demonstrate against the Vietnam War.
- May 10 – The Boston Bruins win their first Stanley Cup since 1941 when Bobby Orr scores a goal 40 seconds into overtime for a 4–3 victory which completes a four-game sweep of the St. Louis Blues.
- May 11
- May 12 – The 1976 Winter Olympics are awarded to Denver, Colorado but it is later rejected in 1972.
- May 14
- May 17 – Thor Heyerdahl sets sail from Morocco on the papyrus boat Ra II, to sail the Atlantic Ocean.
- May 23 – A fire occurs in the Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait near Bangor, Caernarfonshire, Wales, contributing to its partial destruction and amounting to approximately £1,000,000 worth of fire damage.
- May 24 – The scientific drilling of the Kola Superdeep Borehole begins in the USSR.
- May 26 – The Soviet Tupolev Tu-144 becomes the first commercial transport to exceed Mach 2.
- May 27 – A British expedition climbs the south face of Annapurna I.
- May 31
- June 1 – Soyuz 9, a two-man spacecraft, is launched in the Soviet Union.
- June 2 – Norway announces it has rich oil deposits off its North Sea coast.
- June 4 – Tonga gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- June 7 – The Who become the first act to perform rock music (their rock opera, Tommy) at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York.
- June 8 – A coup in Argentina brings a new junta of service chiefs; on June 18, Roberto M. Levingston becomes President.
- June 11 – The United States gets its first female generals, Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth P. Hoisington.
- June 12 – NDFLOAG guerrillas attack military garrisons at Izki and Nizwa in Oman.
- June 13 – The Long and Winding Road becomes the Beatles' 20th and final single to reach number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart.
- June 15 – Operation Wedding: fifteen refuseniks try to escape from the Soviet Union by hijacking a plane.
- June 18 – United Kingdom general election, 1970: the Conservative Party wins and Edward Heath becomes Prime Minister, ousting the Labour government of Harold Wilson after nearly six years in power. The election result is something of a surprise, as most of the opinion polls had predicted a third successive Labour win.
- June 19 – The Patent Cooperation Treaty is signed into international law, providing a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions.
- June 21
- June 23 – The film: Kelly's Heroes is released in the US.
- June 24 – The United States Senate repeals the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964.
- June 28 – U.S. ground troops withdraw from Cambodia.
- June 30 – Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati opens.
- July 1
- July 3 – The French Army detonates a 914 kiloton thermonuclear device in the Mururoa Atoll. It is their fourth and largest nuclear test.
- July 4
- A chartered Dan-Air De Havilland Comet crashes into the mountains north of Barcelona; at least 112 people are killed.
- Bob Hope and other entertainers gather in Washington, D.C. for Honor America Day, a nonpartisan holiday event.
- Longtime radio music countdown show American Top 40 debuts on 5 U.S. stations with Casey Kasem as host.
- July 5 – Air Canada Flight 621 crashes at Toronto International Airport, Toronto, Ontario; all 109 passengers and crew are killed.
- July 11 – The first tunnel under the Pyrenees links the towns of Aragnouet (France) and Bielsa (Spain).
- July 12 – Thor Heyerdahl's papyrus boat Ra II arrives in Barbados.
- July 16 – Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh opens.
- July 21 – The Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.
- July 23
- July 30 – Damages totalling £485,528 are awarded to 28 Thalidomide victims.
- July 31 – NBC anchor Chet Huntley retires from full-time broadcasting.
- August 7 – Harold Haley, Marin County Superior Court Judge, is taken hostage and murdered, in an effort to free George Jackson from police custody.
- August 17
- August 24 – Vietnam War protesters bomb Sterling Hall at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, leading to an international manhunt for the perpetrators.
- August 26
- Women's Strike for Equality takes place down Fifth Avenue in New York City.
- The Isle of Wight Festival 1970 begins on East Afton Farm off the coast of England. Some 600,000 people attend the largest rock festival of all time. Artists include Jimi Hendrix, The Who, The Doors, Chicago, Richie Havens, John Sebastian, Joan Baez, Ten Years After, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, The Moody Blues and Jethro Tull.
- August 29 – Chicano Moratorium against the Vietnam War, East Los Angeles, California. Police riot kills three people, including journalist Rubén Salazar.
- September 1 – An assassination attempt against King Hussein of Jordan precipitates the Black September crisis.
- September 3 – September 6 – Israeli forces fight Palestinian guerillas in southern Lebanon.
- September 5
- Vietnam War – Operation Jefferson Glenn: The United States 101st Airborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division initiate a new operation in Thua Thien Province (the operation ends in October 1971).
- Formula One driver Jochen Rindt is killed in qualifying for the Italian Grand Prix. He becomes World Driving Champion anyhow, first to earn the honor posthumously.
- September 6 – Dawson's Field hijackings, The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijacks 4 passenger aircraft from Pan Am, TWA and Swissair on flights to New York from Brussels, Frankfurt and Zürich.
- September 7
- September 8 –September 10 – The Jordanian government and Palestinian guerillas make repeated unsuccessful truces.
- September 9
- September 10
- September 11 – The Ford Pinto is introduced.
- September 13
- September 15 – King Hussein of Jordan forms a military government with Muhammad Daoud as the prime minister.
- September 17 – "Black September": King Hussein of Jordan orders the Jordanian Armed Forces to oust Palestinian fedayeen from Jordan.
- September 18 – American musician Jimi Hendrix dies from an overdose of sleeping pills.
- September 19 - The first Glastonbury Festival is held, at a farm belonging to Michael Eavis.
- September 19 - Kostas Georgakis, a Greek student of geology, sets himself ablaze in Matteotti Square in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos.
- September 20
- September 21
- September 22
- September 23 – The first women's only tennis tournament begins in Houston, known as the Houston Women's Invitation.
- September 26 – The Laguna Fire starts in San Diego County, burning 175,425 acres (709.92 km2).
- September 27
- September 28 – Gamal Abdel Nasser dies; Vice President Anwar Sadat is named temporary president of Egypt.
- September 29
- October 2
- Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) Corps, one of seven federal uniformed services of the United States, is renamed to NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps under the soon to be formed National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
- The Wichita State University football team's "Gold" plane crashes in Colorado, killing most of the players. They were on their way (along with administrators and fans) to a game with Utah State University.
- Pink Floyd releases Atom Heart Mother. It becomes their first number one album.
- October 3
- In Lebanon, the government of Prime Minister Rashid Karami resigns.
- The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is formed.
- The Weather Bureau is renamed to National Weather Service, as part of NOAA.
- Pope Paul VI names Saint Catherine of Siena as the second female Doctor of the Church.
- October 4
- Jochen Rindt becomes Formula One World Driving Champion, first to earn the honor posthumously.
- In Bolivia, Army Commander General Rogelio Miranda and a group of officers rebel and demand the resignation of President Alfredo Ovando Candía, who fires him.
- National Educational Television ends operations, being succeeded by PBS.
- October 5
- U.S. President Richard Nixon's European tour ends.
- The Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) kidnaps James Cross in Montreal and demands release of all its imprisoned members. The next day the Canadian government announces it will not meet the demand, beginning Quebec's October Crisis.
- The Public Broadcasting Service begins broadcasting.
- October 6
- October 7 – General Juan José Torres becomes the new President of Bolivia.
- October 8
- The U.S. Foreign Office announces that renewal of arms sales to Pakistan.
- Soviet author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
- Vietnam War: In Paris, a Communist delegation rejects U.S. President Richard Nixon's October 7 peace proposal as "a maneuver to deceive world opinion."
- October 9 – The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia which begins the Civil War with the Khmer Rouge.